President Infinity 1820 Election


1820 US Election

*This scenario was greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 20, 2017 and on February 21, 2018. Version 3.0 can be downloaded here: United States – 1820Final


Ready for a challenge? The 1820 election was virtually uncontested, as the nation’s relative harmony, and the decline of the Federalist Party, made us virtually a one-party state for a short period of time. As such, James Monroe’s near unanimity was all but guaranteed.

Despite the support for Monroe, voters were really diseffected with Monroe’s presidency and with politics in general. This springs primarily from a lack of competition in the last few election, and no competition in 1820. Although, Monroe’s unwillingness to support modernization was quickly alienating many voters, especially in the North. Additionally, he was disappointed the more conservative voters in the South.

What Really Happened:

As expected, Monroe won every state in a landslide. However, about 20% of the population voted against Monroe, with New York Governor DeWitt Clinton as the leading default candidate. Clinton had previously been a fusion candidate for an alliance between Federalists and Republicans (sometimes called Democratic-Republicans) favoring internal improvements and a national bank. One elector voted for John Quincy Adams, depriving Monroe of a unanimous victory.

This Election includes the following candidates:

  • ON Republicans:
    • Pres. James Monroe
  • OFF Republicans:
    • Gen. Andrew Jackson
    • Sec. of War John C. Calhoun
    • Sec. of the Treasury William H. Crawford
    • Rep. John Randolph
    • Gen. William Henry Harrison
    • VP Daniel Tompkins
    • Speaker Henry Clay
    • Sec. of State John Quincy Adams
    • Fmr VP Aaron Burr
    • Fmr Pres. James Madison
  • ON Unpledged Federalists
  • ON Unpledged Republicans
  • OFF Federalists:
    • Fmr Rep. Daniel Webster
    • Sen. Rufus King
    • Chief Justice John Marshall
    • Fmr Ch. Justice John Jay
    • Fmr Sec. Alexander Hamilton
    • Sen. Harrison Gray Otis
  • OFF Independent Republican
    • Gov. DeWitt Clinton

Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1816 Election

1816 US Election

*This scenario was greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 19, 2017 and again on February 8, 2018. Version 3.0 can be downloaded here: United States – 1816Final

Background:This election follows the end of the War of 1812, a stalemate which was spun as a victory, since Andrew Jackson won the last battle of the war. Pres. James Madison and his administration realized that the Jeffersonian theory of government was at odds with a modernizing world. As such, Madison evolved to support several Federalist programs, such as a high tariff and a national bank.

Meanwhile, the Federalist Party was rapidly losing support, as its Pro-British tendencies were tantamount to treason. As such, they couldn’t expect to win.

Heading into the election, Madison’s Secretary of War, James Monroe, was heir apparent. However, Northern Republicans tiring of Virginians running the country, drafted Georgian William H. Crawford as an alternate candidate, hoping that he would get Southern and Northern support. Two other potentially strong candidates, Daniel Tompkins and Simon Snyder, withdrew before the nomination caucus.

What Really Happened?

Crawford nearly defeated Monroe for the nomination, despite refusing to exert himself. Crawford neither personally campaigned against Monroe, but he also didn’t prevent supporters from campaigning on his behalf. Monroe later made Crawford his Secretary of State, and Crawford assumed he would be Monroe’s heir in eight years.

Federalist were so disorganized that they failed to hold a convention, but Rufus King, through his own effort, emerged as the candidate of their party.

As could be expected, Monroe won in a landslide. Only Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Delaware voted for King.

This election includes the following candidates:
ON Republicans:
Sec. of State James Monroe
Sec. of War William Crawford
Gov. Daniel Tompkins of NY
Gov. Simon Snyder of PA
OFF Republicans
Gen. Andrew Jackson
Speaker Henry Clay of KY
Rep. John Randolph of VA
Gen. William Henry Harrison
Amb. John Quincy Adams
Pres. James Madison
Fmr Pres. Thomas Jefferson
Mayor DeWitt Clinton of NYC
Fmr VP Aaron Burr
ON Federalists
Sen. Rufus King of NY
OFF Federalist Party
Rep. Daniel Webster of NH
Chief Justice John Marshall
Fmr Gov. John Jay
Fmr Rep. Harrison Gray Otis
Fmr Sec. Alexander Hamilton
Rep. Timothy Pickering of MA
ON Pennsylvania Unpledged Federalists
Sec. of War William Crawford w/ Federalist VP

Feedback is desired.

2020 Presidential Election

2020 Presidential Election [VCCzar version]

[This election was updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on Nov 29, 2017. It was updated again on February 4, 2018, and it can be downloaded here: United States – 2020-Feb4th2018


It is July 2019, and President Trump’s approval rating has never been above 40% in the average poll.

Donald Trump’s presidency has proven to be as controversial as his 2016 campaign. While his Midwestern base is exceptionally happy, he has alienated many Republicans, mostly with his unique presidential style, but also with his connection to scandalous figures from the Russian probe and some of his policies. Republicans are mostly against impeaching Trump.

Meanwhile, Democrats struggle between reformist establishment figures and populist progressives leading the party, but they have managed to narrowly retake the Senate and the House. As such, impeachment seems likely as more evidence comes in from the Russia probe.

Both parties continue to struggle with making their voters happy, while maintaining the stability and order that the establishment of both parties think is required for American supremacy.



President Infinity 1812 Election

1812 US Election
*This scenario was greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 18, 2017 and on February 1, 2018. Version 3.0 can be downloaded here: United States – 1812 Final

Background:This election takes place as the War Hawks in Congress inevitably push James Madison to war against the British.While the nation has a cause for war, the military is not much more prepared than it was during the Revolution. However, militant optimists expect a resounding victory, including the potential annexation of Canada.

This leads to another disagreement. Pro-war Northerners are wishing for Canada to become a new state, while Pro-war Southerners fear that a Canadian state will greatly diminish the influence of the South.Therefore, Southern politicians hope to use Canada only as a bargaining chip in a peace treaty.

Support for the war is minimal in the North, as trade is heavily dependent on British cooperation.After having endured Jefferson’s embargo,and having to deal with a continued embargo with Madison,a war with a European power would certainly wreck their economy.

Overall, Madison’s reelection isn’t guaranteed, as it had been for Jefferson. For two years, Madison was aimless, and ultimately appeared to continue Jefferson’s less popular policies, such as creating his own embargo. Madison also killed the National Bank,which worried some of the major cities.

With Madison’s reelection in question, the opposition felt a chance for victory. However, the Federalists were so disorganized on the National-level following recent defeats, that most of them would accept a moderate Republican, such as DeWitt Clinton, who favors many Federalist policies,such as Federally-funded internal improvement. Some Federalists, like Rufus King, who to build a straight Federalist ticket.

What Really Happened?

The election was fairly close, but Clinton was unable to pick up the crucial state of Pennsylvania, which he needed to win the election. Had Clinton selected a Republican Pennsylvania running mate, rather than a Federalist Pennsylvania running mate, he might have won the election, even if he lost some Federalist support. Surprisingly, Madison won Vermont, despite Northern opposition to the war. Madison had solid support in the South and West.

Madison was able to win reelection despite several military setbacks during the war.

This election includes the following candidates:
ON Republicans:
Pres. James Madison, the incumbent running for reelection.
OFF Republicans 
Sec. of State James Monroe
Sec of War William Crawford
Gov. Daniel Tompkins of NY
Gov. Simon Snyder of PA
Gen. Andrew Jackson
VP George Clinton
Rep. John Randolph
Gen. William Henry Harrison
Amb. John Quincy Adams
Fmr Pres. Thomas Jefferson
Speaker Henry Clay
Gov. Elbridge Gerry of MA
Fmr VP Aaron Burr
ON Independent Fusion:
Mayor DeWitt Clinton of NYC
ON Straight Federalists:
Fmr Amb. Rufus King
OFF Federalist Party (Had the party been more organized):
Fmr Amb. Rufus King
Fmr Amb. Charles Coatesworth Pinckney
Chief Justice John Marshall
Fmr Gov. John Jay
Fmr Rep. Harrison Gray Otis
Fmr Sec. Alexander Hamilton
Fmr Pres. John Adams
Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1808 Election


*The Historical Scenario Commission greatly updated this scenario on July 17, 2017 and January 6, 2018. Version 3.0 can be found here: United States – 1808 Final


This election takes place as Thomas Jefferson’s second term is winding down. While Jefferson’s first term was wildly popular, his decision to unleash an embargo against Great Britain has crippled Northern industry, upsetting even Northern Republicans. Despite this, Jefferson’s popularity is still high, but he has chosen to retire, rather than seek a 3rd term.

As such, Jefferson’s Secretary of State, James Madison, moves to the front rank as Jefferson’s preferred successor. Yet, Madison hasn’t the charisma that Jefferson had and, therefore, seems potentially vulnerable. Therefore, conservative Republicans led by John Randolph, who believe Jefferson and Madison are too moderate, promote James Monroe for the nomination. Meanwhile, Northern Republicans push for George Clinton’s nomination, as they tired and feared a continued Virginia Dynasty.
Federalists also sensing an out-side chance of victory, debated on whether to support Clinton’s nomination or to field one of their own candidates. Ultimately, they chose their own candidate. As Federalist leaders couldn’t convince any of their superstar politicians to run, such as Chief Justice John Marshall, they opted to support the same ticket as in 1804, Charles Coatesworth Pinckney and Rufus King.
Internationally, the Napoleonic Wars dominate the headlines.

What Really Happened?

After some tension, James Madison was able to wrap up his nomination for president rather convincingly, thanks to the endorsement of Thomas Jefferson and the Nominating Caucus. Madison kept Jefferson’s VP, George Clinton. However, groups of Never Madisons supported either VP Clinton or Monroe through election day.

Madison easily defeated Pinckney for the presidency, even taking Vermont. Yet, it could have gone another direction. Clinton supporters made headway in NY, and could have possibly held the state. A stronger Federalist candidate would have captured all of New England, plus Delaware. John Marshall, a popular Southern Federalist, would have likely to Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina. Pennsylvania might have been a contest. In short, fear of defeat held back a chance of victory in what could have been a more contested election.
Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:
  • Why not test your skill by attempting to defeat James Madison with Charles Coatesworth Pinckney?
  • What if George Clinton had taken the nomination for himself and his Northern Republicans?
  • What if James Monroe had won the nomination for himself and his conservative Old Republicans?
  • What if Thomas Jefferson had run for a 3rd term?
  • What if Aaron Burr opted to run, despite crippling scandals?
  • What if Elbridge Gerry, a rare Massachusetts Republican, ran?
  • What if DeWitt Clinton ran a stronger independent Northern Republican insurgency campaign?
  • What if John Randolph personally ran a strong insurgent Old Republican campaign for his conservatives?
  • What if Chief Justice John Marshall had agreed to run as a superstar Federalist candidate?
  • What if former president John Adams sought a non-consecutive second term?
  • What if Alexander Hamilton had not been mortally wounded and ran in 1808?
  • What if John Jay opted to be the Federalist superstar candidate?
  • What if John Quincy Adams, the moderate son of John Adams, ran as a candidate that could potentially win Northern Republicans and Federalists?
  • What if Rufus King were on the top of the ticket, rather than as the VP nominee?

Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1804 Election


US Election 1804

*The Historical Scenario Commission greatly updated this scenario on July 17, 2017 and on December 31, 2017. Version 3.0 can be downloaded here: United States – 1804 Final


The 1804 election took place during a brief hiatus in the French Revolutionary War abroad, resulting in booming international trade. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson’s decision to buy Louisiana Territory from Napoleon opened cheap land out West for settlers. As such, Jefferson’s popularity was arguably at its peak. Therefore, Jefferson’s renomination and reelection was virtually assured.

Meanwhile, Federalists were in disarray with only New England and New York having any semblance of an organized party. New England Federalists so opposed Jefferson that many of them, led by Sen. Timothy Pickering, hatched a plan to work with VP Aaron Burr to secede from the country if Jefferson won reelection. However, many notable Federalists, including Alexander Hamilton, opposed the scheme.

What Really Happened?
Thomas Jefferson sought reelection without contest from his party. Federalists were unable to convince any sort of superstar from running; therefore, they settled for last election’s VP-nominee, Charles Coatesworth Pinckney, whom they thought would father Southern support.
Meanwhile, the Northern secessionist plot failed badly. Secessionists banked on incumbent VP Aaron Burr winning the gubernatorial election in NY, and hoped that Burr would then align with New England and break off from Jeffersonian America. However, Alexander Hamilton thwarted both Burr and his fellow Federalists by working against the scheme and Burr’s election. Ultimately, Burr and Hamilton agreed to a duel over a lifetime of grievances against one another, resulting in the mortal wounding of Alexander Hamilton. Rumors of Burr’s dissatisfaction with Jefferson, rumors of his possible collusion in a secession plot, and his killing of Alexander Hamilton, resulted in Jefferson dropping Burr as his VP for another New Yorker, George Clinton. New England would make another secession attempt during the War of 1812, nearly a decade later.
On election day, Jefferson trounced Pinckney, 72.8% to 27.2% in the greatest popular vote landslide in a contested election. Additionally, Jefferson won four of the five New England states, including Massachusetts. Clinton helped Jefferson win New York. Only Delaware and Connecticut chose Pinckney.
Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:
  • Why not test your skill by attempting to defeat Thomas Jefferson with Charles Coatesworth Pinckney?
  • What if George Clinton, Aaron Burr, or Elbridge Gerry contested Jefferson’s nomination with the support of Northern Republicans?
  • What if James Madison became impatient and aimed to win the nomination for himself?
  • What if conservative Republicans had rallied behind James Monroe in 1804?
  • What if Alexander Hamilton ran for the presidency and survived his duel with Aaron Burr?
  • What if other Federalist superstars, such as John Marshall and John Jay ran?
  • What if John Adams sought a non-consecutive second term?
  • What if John Quincy Adams aimed for the presidency in 1804?
  • What if Gouverneur Morris or Henry Lee ran for the Federalists?

Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1800 Election


US 1800 Election

[This scenario was greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 15, 2017 and on December 27, 2017. Download version 3.0 here: United States – 1800 Final]


This election takes place amid a time of crisis. America has been caught in the fallout of the French Revolution, and finds itself in an undeclared war with Napoleonic France, which has been meddling in American domestic affairs, and harassing American merchant fleets. President John Adams has drawn fire from both major parties for his responses to French aggression. The Jeffersonian Republicans have gathered their energy from their fierce opposition to the Alien & Sedition Acts, while the Federalists have attacked Adams’s independent streak, and his desire to achieve peace with France. As such, Jefferson and Madison work to orchestrate a Republican Revolution, while Hamiltonian Federalists secretly wish to replace Adams on the ticket.

Another foreign policy issue facing the candidates is the increased attacks by Barbary Pirates. Should the US increase it’s navy? Should the US attack the pirates with the navy they currently have?

Domestically, one of the major issues, outside of the domestic realm of the Alien & Sedition Acts, is the question of expanded suffrage. Should more states allow a popular vote? Should the government sell cheap Western property to grow the voting pool? Should those without property be allowed to vote?

Also dominating the headlines is the New York power struggle between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, as both hope to position New York for their respective parties for the 1800 election. Internationally, Napoleon dominates the news.

This election is also the last election under the old electoral system.  Electors vote on both the president and vice president, which had lead to Adams and Jefferson serving on the same ticket in 1796, despite memberships to different parties.

What really happened?

John Adams’s pessimism was well-founded. While he was able to upset Hamilton’s scheme to place Pinckney at the top of the ticket, Federalist in-fighting hampered Adams’s election chances, and while Adams restored his popularity with establishing peace with France, the news came too late to help Adams win reelection.

Jefferson’s popularity was such that his election was believed to be very certain. Despite this relative certainty, Jefferson’s allies held no punches during the campaign against Adams. Likewise, President Adams’s allies responded in kind, in what was a very nasty campaign, full of ad hominum attacks.

This election did not go smoothly. Combined attacks from Republicans and Hamilton threw Adams into a distant 3rd place in the election. Alexander Hamilton tried to convince NY Gov. John Jay to nullify the New York results when it appeared Republicans would take the state, but Jay refused.  Jefferson won in a landslide, but the supposed vice president choice, Aaron Burr, ended up with the same number of electors, as an elector had forgot to give a vote to someone else to prevent a deadlock. It was well-known that Jefferson was the lead man on the Republican ticket, but Aaron Burr did not bend. The election went to the US House.

After several tied votes, Alexander Hamilton made a surprise move by pressuring Federalists to give their Burr votes to Jefferson, who he believed had more principle, despite not being a moderate Republican like Burr. Hamilton’s influence handed the election to Jefferson, and made Burr vice president.

Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:

  • Can you win reelection as Pres. John Adams?
  • Can you upset Thomas Jefferson as Aaron Burr, winning the presidency from under the presumed winner’s feet?
  • Can you fulfill Hamilton’s plan to land the presidency to Charles Coatesworth Pinckney?
  • Can you secure a dark horse victory with John Jay?
  • What if Alexander Hamilton tried to take control of the party from John Adams by running in the election himself? Could such a controversial candidate win?
  • What if indebted Founding Father Robert Morris won in an attempt to resurrect his reputation?
  • What if Founding Father Gouverneur Morris ran as another Federalist option? Can such an elitist win with a Jeffersonian tide in the country?
  • What if Founding Father Rufus King, greatly respected by both parties, ran as a likable Federalist?
  • What if Rev War officer Henry “Light Horse” Lee ran as a Southern Federalist?
  • What if an Arch Federalist, such as 41-year-old Fisher Ames, ran? Could he win outside of Massachusetts?
  • What if the 77-year old Samuel Adams make a last run for the presidency, despite failing health?
  • What if former Northern Republican superstar George Clinton of NY made another attempt at the presidency?
  • What if Founding Father Elbridge Gerry ran as a rare Massachusetts Republican?
  • What if James Madison was too impatient, and opted to run for the presidency, even with Jefferson as the favored Republican?
  • What if 41-year-old James Monroe, figurehead of the Conservative Wing of the Republicans, ran in 1800?
  • What if George Washington’s freak illness in December 1799 had not killed him, and what if Federalists pressured him to run to prevent a Republican takeover?


Feedback desired.

President Infinity 1796 Election

US 1796 Election


*This election was greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 13, 2017 and on December 15, 2017. Download version 3.0 here: United States – 1796 Final


With George Washington eager to retirement, numerous potential successors have been proposed to follow the “Father of our Country” as the next president. While John Adams is the presumed heir, many critics of the Washington administration have proposed Thomas Jefferson, a major of Hamilton’s economic policies and John Jay’s treaty with Great Britain.

Dominating this election are the events in Europe, predominately the French Revolution, which hampers trade and commerce abroad, and potential stability domestically, as the elites fear an uprising by the masses in America. A new Revolution at home was a realistic enough supposition that even former anti-Federalist Patrick Henry converted to the Federalist Party, as he feared a populist revolt.

The John Jay Treaty is arguably the major issue of the election. This treaty probably prevented a new war with Britain, solidified our Western frontier, and somewhat strengthened relations with our former cousins, but to many it did not go far enough–lacking compensation for sunken American ships and impressed sailors by the British. The Jeffersonian Republicans also saw the treaty as a direct violation of our alliance with France; although, Federalists declared the alliance over after the French executed their king and declared a new government.

Additionally, a new figure–Napoleon Bonaparte–dominates the headlines, who could determine if America leans pro-British or pro-French.

What really happened?

John Adams was expected to follow Washington into office, but it was understood that he would face real opposition, unlike with Washington. Adams had believed that Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, George Clinton, John Jay, and Patrick Henry were his likely competitors, but of these only Jefferson, and to a lesser extent, Burr, posed any real threat. Federalists had decided to lead their support for Adams, except for a failed attempt by Hamilton to get Thomas Pinckney elected over John Adams.

For the the Republicans, Madison and others had convinced Jefferson, who pretended to be reluctant to return to public life, to run for president against his close friend, John Adams. Just as the Federalists needed a Southerner to balance their ticket, the Republicans needed a Northerner, and naturally New York carried the most weight. Rather than going with the usual George Clinton–who had just lost reelection for governor of New York to John Jay–Republicans opted to favor young Aaron Burr.

This election followed the old rules which required Electors to cast two votes, one presumably for president and one for vice president. However, electors didn’t strictly vote along party lines, and many Federalists voted for candidates that weren’t Adams or Pinckney. As such, while John Adams won the election, Thomas Jefferson became his vice president, rather than Thomas Pinckney.

Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:

  • Can defeat John Adams and begin the Jefferson presidency four years earlier?
  • Play as Thomas Pinckney and ensure that you become Adams’s VP.
  • Play as Aaron Burr and outmaneuver Jefferson as the Republican option
  • Play as John Jay and replaced Adams as the Federalist option
  • Seek revenge for George Clinton and beat out Aaron Burr as the major Republican of New York
  • Play as one of many “minor candidates” such as Samuel Adams, Oliver Ellsworth, John Henry, James Iredell, Samuel Johnston, and future two-time Federalist nominee Charles Coatesworth Pinckney.
  • Play as one of several What-if candidates (see below)

What if these candidates had launched a campaign? 

  • What if George Washington ran for a 3rd term?
  • What if Alexander Hamilton had opted to follow Washington into office?
  • What if James Madison had asserted himself into presidential politics earlier?
  • What if James Monroe, leader of the more conservative faction of Republicans, had decided to run earlier?
  • What if recently converted Federalist Patrick Henry had decided to run?
  • What if the recent debt-ridden “Financier of the Revolution” Robert Morris had run to repair his reputation?

Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1792 Election


US 1792 Election

[Note: This scenario has been greatly updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 11, 2017 and on December 12, 2017.]

Download Version 3.0 here: United States – 1792 Final


President Washington, used to myth-like idolization, is incurring the first vocal criticism of his life since his defeat at the Battle of Long Island in 1776, nearly 16 years ago. The brunt of his criticism comes from Washington’s efforts to centralize government power, predominately through his open adopts of the economic policies of Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. Additionally, Hamilton’s advice has taken clear precedents over the advice of ideological rival Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, who is becoming increasingly isolated and disgruntled. In fact, the followers of Hamilton are monopolizing the offices of the Washington administration.

Part of Washington’s Federalist’s leanings involves foreign affairs. Their official ally France is undergoing a revolution of extreme violence, which not only disrupts trade, but threatens the establishment with fears of such violence occurring in America. Washington, like Hamilton, sees a return to a closer relationship with Britain as the best change for financial and governmental stability. Here, Jefferson is the odd man out again, as he favors closer ties with the French. In short, Hamilton is nullifying Jefferson’s influence at the State Department.

Hamilton’s influence has led to the formulation of political parties. Those favoring Hamilton’s pro-business, pro-industrialization, pro-bank, pro-centralizing government are known as the Federalists. US Rep. James Madison has recently organized politicians opposed to most or all of these Federalist ideals and has elevated the more charismatic Thomas Jefferson as the leader of this opposition. In the North, George Clinton and Aaron Burr lead a Northern variety of this Jeffersonian Republicanism, which aims to appeal to the people, rather than to elitist authority.

Despite this, Washington is still popular and seen as indispensable. Personally, he wishes to retire, but both Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans urge Washington to run for a second term as the country eases into a relationship with a home-grown federal government.

As such, Washington is expected to win unanimously once again. The real race is for the vice presidency, and the occasional quasi-monarchist comments by John Adams makes the incumbent VP open to attack by Republicans, who hope to elevate Northern Republican NY Gov. George Clinton to the position.

What really happened?

As expected, Washington won a vote from every delegate. The delegates had a harder time considering their chose for VP, but as was probably likely, Adams won reelection, but at a much smaller margin than he had won by in 1788/1789. George Clinton made a respectable showing, and Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr receives some token votes.

Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:

  • Play as George Clinton and see if you can upset the Federalist dominance of the executive branch by defeating John Adams.
  • Play as John Adams and see if you can win every electoral vote, tying Washington, and sending the election to the house.
  • Play as Thomas Jefferson or Aaron Burr to see if you can be a tougher rival than George Clinton was for John Adams.
  • Play as the Simulation Party and watch the CPU play through the election.
  • Why not play as many of the what-if candidates (see below)?

What if these candidates had launched a campaign? 

  • What if George Washington had retired and John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and/or George Clinton had run on the “presidential ballot”? [Note: For this use the Adams, Jefferson, Clinton candidates with a “(P)” next to their name, and make sure that Washington, and the default Adams, Jefferson, and Clinton are all turned OFF]
  • What if popular Rev War General Artemas Ward ran. Politicians were surprised with his natural political ability.
  • What if the aging Rev War patriot Samuel Adams ran as a Jeffersonian Republican alternative to his cousin John Adams?
  • What if Samuel Huntington, arguably the most powerful man in Connecticut, had run?
  • What if the impressive and multifaceted Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Jay decided to run?
  • What if former Supreme Court Justice John Rutledge decided to represent the Deep South on the presidential ticket?
  • What if the famous Patrick Henry ran an opposition candidacy to John Adams?
  • What if Richard Henry Lee ran? Could he have a shot with flashier Virginians in the running?
  • What if future nominee, and former Rev War general, Charles Coatesworth Pinckney ran in 1792?
  • What if the ambitious treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton opted to join Washington on the ticket?
  • What if the “Financier of the Revolution” Robert Morris had run?
  • What if the leading voice of opposition in the US House, James Madison, had run in 1792?
  • What if the most vehement critic of the government, William Maclay, ran an insurgency candidacy?
  • What if the famed John Hancock positioned himself as the better Massachusetts man for the vice presidency?
  • What if Supreme Court Justice James Wilson, the only man to call for a popular vote at the Constitutional Convention, ran for the vice presidency?

Feedback is desired.

President Infinity 1788 Election

US 1788 Election

*Note: This election was improved and updated by the Historical Scenario Commission on July 8, 2017 and on December 11, 2017. 

Version 3.0 download here: United States – 1788 Final


The first presidential election take place amid uncertainty and chaos. Domestically, the country is struggling economically, as a result of a long war with Britain that has left the country somewhat crippled in production and trade, especially when you consider the bulk of our trade had been with Britain. The present Articles of Confederation, which binds the former colonies, has proved to be ineffective in the case of emergencies and in competing with European power.

As such, leading figures from each state had called a Convention in Philadelphia to amend the Articles of Confederation; however, the grand majority of delegates pushed for a stronger central government, resulting in a Constitution of the United States. One provision called for the election of a chief executive–the President of the United States.

As the election year of 1788 arrives, the several states are in the process of ratification, but some states are on the fence in regards to the Constitution. The more “radical” politicians, such as Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and George Clinton have been left out of the process. However, with the support of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington, and the authors of the Federalist Papers–Madison, Hamilton, and Jay–ratification seems more than likely.

In foreign affairs, a Revolution is brewing in France. While the possibility of a brother Republican is exciting, a revolution in France guarantees that trade with our new top trade partner and ally will greatly diminish, as the British are likely to block French trade.

This contest was really one for the Vice Presidency, as General George Washington, who had been president of the Constitutional Convention, was expected to win a vote from each delegate. As required from the Constitution at the time, the delegates would have a second vote to select the Vice Presidency. As Washington was a Southerner without foreign affairs experience, a pro-Constitution Northerner with foreign affairs experience was likely to become the next VP. This left John Adams, the first minister to Great Britain, as the frontrunner for this spot, since Benjamin Franklin, at 82, was too old, and John Jay was likely too young at 42. Those opposed to the Constitution turned primarily to NY Governor George Clinton.

What Really Happens?: 

As expected George Washington won a vote from every elector. John Adams, who was likely to win, was able to secure victory, arguably by a larger margin than expected, as he won more votes than all the other VP-candidates combined. This is most likely because New York was too disorganized to send electors, which cut the feet from under a John Jay or George Clinton ticket. Some argue that Alexander Hamilton might have schemed to prevent Clinton, an anti-Federalist, from entering the government and destroying it from within, even at the expense of fellow NY Federalist John Jay.

Need a Suggestion as to who to play as? Try an win as these candidates:

  • Why not try and disrupt the country’s attempt at federalization by joining the insurgency campaign of George Clinton?
  • Why not pick John Jay and see if you can take the VP spot, even without your home state sending electors?
  • Why not try and have the South lead the Early Republic by creating a Southern coalition to send John Rutledge to the vice presidency?
  • Why not use John Hancock, the former president of the Continental Congress, and see if you can rest New England from fellow Massachusetts man John Adams, and take the vice presidency for yourself.
  • Why not see if you can win every elector as John Adams, tying George Washington, and send the election to the House?
  • Why not “watch” the election as the Simulation Party to see how the CPU plays out the election?
  • Why not select one of many What-if candidates? (see below)

What if these candidates had ran?

  • What if the primary Declaration author, Thomas Jefferson, a leading critic of a central government, ran for the vice presidency despite a Virginian likely to win the White House?
  • What if popular general Artemas Ward ran? Is two generals too much for a presidential ticket?
  • What if Samuel Adams tried to upset his cousin’s candidacy for VP?
  • What if vehement critic of the Constitution, Patrick “Liberty or Death” Henry ran?
  • What if Benjamin Franklin ran? While 82 years old, it is possible he could have ruined Washington’s chances at winning unanimously.
  • What if James Madison, then 37, ran? Could the “Father of the Constitution” win?
  • What if the “Financier of the Revolution” Robert Morris had run?
  • What if William Maclay, a rabid critic of a central government, had run as another anti-Federalist?
  • What if Judge James Wilson, the only Constitutional delegate to call for a popular vote, had run?
  • What if Common Sense author Thomas Paine had not migrated to Europe in 1787, but stayed to take part in the Early Republic?
  • What if Henry Laurens, arguably the leading trafficker in slaves, had aim to take the vice presidency by creating a Southern Bloc?
  • What if Richard Henry Lee, a critic of a Constitution, had run?
  • What if ambitious general Horatio Gates had joined the race?
  • What if the celebrated artist, naturalist, politician Charles Willson Peale had run?
  • What if the “Father of the Bill of Rights” George Mason ran despite his provincial attitude and opposition to the Constitution?
  • What if the only Founding Father to sign all four major documents of the United States–Continental Association, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution–ran for the presidency? Could Roger Sherman win at age 67?

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